The Grande Armée Crossing in Berezina

The Battle took place from November 26-29, 1812, between the French army of Napoleon, retreating after his invasion of Russia and crossing the Berezina, and the Russian armies under Mikhail Kutuzov, Peter Wittgenstein and Admiral Pavel Chichagov. The French suffered heavy losses but managed to cross the river and avoid being trapped. Since then “Bérézina” has been used in French as a synonym for “disaster”.

Berezina River / Image: К. Шастоўскі

As the surviving masses of the Grande Armée struggled on for the perceived safety of the west, the Russian armies closed in on them.

The French had suffered a defeat just two weeks earlier during the Battle of Krasnoi. However, reinforcements who had been stationed near the Berezina during Napoleon’s initial advance through Russia brought the numerical strength of the Grande Armée back up to some 30,000 to 40,000 French soldiers capable of fighting, as well as 40,000 non-combatants. The Russians had approximately 61,000 troops at the Berezina, with another 54,000 under Kutuzov just 64 km to the east who were approaching the river.

French monument at the Berezina river / Image:
Battle of Berezina memorial, Brilevskoye Pole/ Image:
Monument of the first bridge built in 1812 at the Berezina river / Image: Wikimedia Commons
Monument of the second bridge built in 1812 at the Berezina river/ Image:
Battle of Berezina map/ Image: Wikimedia Commons

Featured image: The Grande Armée Crossing the Berezina 1866 / Painter: January Suchodolski

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