The museum showcases the history, art, culture as well as the natural history of Liechtenstein. The museum building dates back to the 15th century. It has acted as the princely tavern, and the seat of the government over the many centuries of its existence.
In the late 19th century, the National Administrator Friedrich Stellwag von Carion planned the creation of a museum to prevent the sale of Liechtenstein cultural goods to other countries.
The collection was originally housed in rooms at Vaduz Castle and later moved to other buildings in the city. Since 1972, the collection has been housed permanently in the new building of the National Museum of Liechtenstein.